For instance, while transporting goods by road may be convenient and flexible it can also be harmful to the environment, causing noise and pollution. Using rail is more environmentally sustainable, but this can be expensive and routes are limited.
For long distance journeys air or sea transportation may be required. Exporting and importing goods on container ships is widespread and is generally a cost effective option. This does not cover the whole of the journey however, so another transport mode is be required when the cargo reaches land. Sending goods by plane can be expensive financially and environmentally and there is great concern about food air miles.
Increasingly, couriers are being used to deliver items locally or as the last stage of the journey. This method can be fast, reliable and safe but the downside of the service is its expense and availability may be limited.
Transportation of people is a subject of much political debate due mainly to economic and environmental issues. People have long recognized the advantages of travelling by road in their own vehicle - comfort and convenience being the most obvious. However, there is mounting pressure on local highway authorities to persuade people to switch to more environmentally friendly modes of transport such as buses, trains and cycles.
While these modes can be less stressful than being trapped in your car in a traffic jam, public transport can also be the source of stress if unreliable. There are still safety issues with cycling, despite significant resources invested in addressing this with the implementation of cycling lanes and awareness schemes.