Actually many forms of deicing systems used on aircraft. Some use electrically heated resistive elements embedded in a rubber sheet cemented to the leading edges of wings and tail surfaces, propeller leading edges, This way when a current is passed through the resistive elements they heat up melting the ice. Lower speed aircraft frequently use pneumatic deicing boot systems on the leading edges of their wings and tail for inflight de-icing. These rubber coverings work by being periodically inflated, causing ice to crack and flake off. Some aircraft use chemical de-icing systems which pump antifreeze agents such as alcohol or propylene glycol through small holes in the wing surfaces causing the ice to melt and preventing it from forming back. A newer deicing system developed works by sending out a sharp mechanical shock, cracking the ice layer and causing it to be peeled off by the slipstream.
Sometimes the leading edge of the wings are made in such a way that there are few strips on the leading edge of the wing can move up and down thus breaking that hard layer of the ice from the wing. These are few and effective ways which are being employed, besides there are many other ways of doing the same.